Our spit reflects cooking, farming, and not licking each other

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Eating meat and cooked food for two million years may have helped humans shift further from our great ape relatives. The evidence is in our saliva, according to new research.

The research shows that the human diet—a result of increased meat consumption, cooking, and agriculture—has led to stark differences in the saliva of humans compared to that of other primates.

Human saliva is unique in that it is more watery and contains a different mix of proteins. The findings came as a big surprise to the researchers, since humans are known to be genetically close relatives of the great apes, chimpanzees, and gorillas.

“Salivary proteins in humans and other primates could be overlooked hotbeds of evolutionary activity,” says Stefan Ruhl, lead investigator of the study and professor of oral biology in the University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine.

“We knew already that evolutionary adaptations to a human-specific diet have resulted in obvious changes to jaws and teeth, as well as the oral microbiome. Our findings now open up the possibility that dietary differences and pathogenic pressures may have also shaped a distinct saliva in humans.”

The study appears in Molecular Biology and Evolution.

How human saliva differs

Saliva helps digest food, protects tooth enamel, polices microbes in the mouth, and forms a first line of defense against pathogens. Saliva plays an important role in speech and taste as well.

Spit’s many functions can be credited to the salivary proteome, which are the thousands of proteins within the fluid. These proteins may also reveal clues to how humanity diverged from the great apes throughout its evolution.

The researchers compared the salivary proteins of humans and our closest evolutionary relatives: gorillas and chimpanzees. Macaques—who share a common, more distant ancestor with humans and great apes—were part of the study, as well.

Key findings include:

  • Humans have waterier saliva than great apes. The overall protein content in human saliva was less than half of the amount found in chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque saliva.
  • Human saliva is more adept at breaking down starch, modifying fat, and detecting key flavors in human diet. The investigators discovered in humans higher amounts of amylase (an enzyme key to digesting starch into sugars) and carbonic anhydrase VI (an enzyme involved in taste perception) than was present in great apes. The saliva of humans and chimpanzees also contained more zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, a protein that aids in fat metabolism, than the spit of gorillas.
  • Losing our fur has led to the lack of latherin in human saliva. Latherin, a detergent-like protein that helps fluids become frothy, was only found in the saliva of the great apes. The researchers believe that humans, who no longer grow fur coats and don’t engage in social grooming, lost the need to produce the protein.
  • All major proteins detected in human saliva were also present in chimpanzee and gorilla saliva. The range of proteins detectable in saliva of humans matched that of the great apes. However, drastic differences in protein quantity and structure were found. “The later may in part be due to different glycans—complex sugar molecules—attached to the proteins”, says Ruhl.


“Did human salivary glands evolve to produce a more watery saliva to accommodate a diet which drastically differs from that of great apes?” asks Supaporn “Nina” Thamadilok, a PhD, PharmD candidate at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and former postdoctoral research associate in Ruhl’s lab.

“Great apes and Old World monkeys chew on their fiber-rich food for longer periods of time, while humans swallow food faster, an ability that is arguably supported by the cooking of food. A watery consistency of saliva could aid in faster digestion of dry food in the mouth, and easier swallowing.

“It might also be advantageous to keep the mouth moist in arid savannah-like environments where early humans evolved, or be important to facilitate human speech and vocalization. Of course, those possibilities remain speculative.”

Co-investigator Omer Gokcumen adds, “The study’s findings provide a necessary basis for future studies to assess whether the differences in human salivary proteins were caused by natural selection.”

“The challenge will be to decipher the genetic underpinnings of these changes and understand the evolutionary mechanisms that caused them. For some of the genes, we have a good idea, for most of the others however, we still have to find out,” says Gokcumen, associate professor of biological sciences at the University at Buffalo.

Coauthors of the study are from Eli Lilly and Company, Putnam Associates, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the Forsyth Institute.

Support for the work came from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute, both within the National Institutes of Health, as well as by Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Source: University at Buffalo