There isn’t much to love about wild mistletoe

Although mistletoe is called the kissing plant, its name may have originated from Old English for the words for twig and dung. How's that to get you in the romantic holiday spirit? (Credit: Paul Zoetemeijer/Unsplash)

Mistletoe may be a welcome holiday sight when hung over a doorway, but it’s an unwelcome intruder when found in trees outside.

“Mistletoe is a hemiparasite—a semi-parasitic plant,” says Allison Watkins, AgriLife Extension horticulturist for Tom Green County at Texas A&M University. “It makes its food from photosynthesis, but the roots grow into the host tree, sucking water and minerals out from the sap”

In other words, you likely don’t want to see mistletoe growing on your favorite shade tree or prized ornamental. However, mistletoe can survive as long as the tree it inhabits. So, some mistletoe alive today may still be around in 100 years.


One type of mistletoe you commonly see used as decoration over the holidays is in the family Phoradendron, which appropriately translates to “thief of the tree” in Greek.

Mistletoe has been used across various cultures throughout history for a variety of things, including warding off demons from entering a doorway and protecting babies from being stolen from their cribs in the night by fairies.

Although mistletoe is called the kissing plant, its name may have originated from Old English for the words for twig and dung. How’s that to get you in the romantic holiday spirit?

Mistletoe 101: Don’t eat it

Mistletoe causes tree stress and can make a tree more susceptible to diseases and insects, Watkins says. Although unlikely to kill a healthy tree, it can cause limbs to die. It can be especially hard on a tree during drought.

Mistletoe easily spreads as birds eat the berries and then spread the seed from limb to limb and tree to tree through their feces. The seeds are exceptionally sticky and may also hitchhike on their feet and beaks.

Certain species of mistletoe can also shoot out their own seeds at speeds around 60 mph once the berry bursts like an overfilled water balloon.

Some mistletoe is poisonous, so it is always wise to use care when handling the plant. Different parts of the plant and different species have varying levels of toxicity. And while birds and wildlife eat the berries, it isn’t something you want your family members, including pets, to ingest.

Mistletoe is most easily spotted in winter when many of the host trees lose their leaves to reveal clusters of the evergreen mistletoe. The spherical shape can be as large as several feet across.

Since birds like to perch in the tops of high trees, mistletoe is most often found in mature trees near the crown. A tree branch may be enlarged where the plant has attached itself.

Animal shelters

Mistletoe plays a key role in many woodland and range ecosystems. For example, its white flowers provide nectar and pollen for native bees and honeybees. There are also several types of butterflies and moths that rely solely on mistletoe species as host plants for their caterpillars.

“Birds aren’t the only animals that munch on mistletoe—squirrels will also eat the berries, and deer and porcupines will eat the plant itself, especially if other food is scarce,” says Maureen Frank, an AgriLife Extension wildlife specialist in Uvalde.

Many animals nest in clumps of mistletoe, especially when the plant causes its host tree to form witches’ brooms, which are dense masses of distorted branches, Frank says. Mistletoe and the corresponding witches’ brooms are used for shelter by tree squirrels, flying squirrels and a variety of birds, from tiny chickadees to raptors like Cooper’s hawks.

The damage done to trees by mistletoe can also provide homes for cavity-nesting species of birds, bats, insects, and small mammals.

Prune carefully

“Even if you remove mistletoe from a tree, the root-like structure remains embedded in the tree, meaning it will grow back,” Watkins says.

The only way to eliminate mistletoe from a tree is to prune the branch it is on. If you feel like your tree is becoming overwhelmed with the parasite, keep in mind that mistletoe takes two to three years to mature so the sooner you can remove the infected branch, then the better you minimize spread. And the smaller the branch that must be removed, then the less stress on the tree.

“In most well-maintained landscapes, there may be mistletoe here or there but it’s probably not something to worry about too much,” Watkins says.

The stress from over-pruning could be more damaging than the mistletoe itself, she says. Watkins says to keep these tips in mind if you do decide to prune:

Light pruning can be done any time of the year, but more significant pruning is best done in the winter when the tree is dormant.

  • Prune no more than one-third of a tree’s canopy.
  • Dead branches can be removed at any time.
  • To avoid spreading oak wilt, oak trees should not be pruned from February to June. December and January are the ideal time to prune oaks.
  • Paint the cuts to protect the tree.

Source: Texas A&M University