Letters of recommendation for women are more likely to contain words or phrases that raise doubts about job or education qualifications than are letters written for men, a new paper shows.
Researchers define “doubt-raisers” as phrases or statements that question an applicant’s aptness for a job.
The language falls into four categories:
- Negativity (directly saying something bad)
- Faint praise (indirect criticism of someone or something by giving a slight compliment)
- Hedges (cautious or vague language)
- Irrelevant information (going off in a direction unrelated to the job description)
Examples of doubt-raisers are statements like “the candidate has a somewhat challenging personality” or “she might be a good leader in the future,” according to the paper, which included two studies.
The first study revealed that, on average, letters written for women were more likely to contain a doubt-raiser than letters written for men (regardless of whether a man or a woman wrote the letter). This was true for negativity, hedging, and faint praises but not for irrelevancies.
Doubt-raisers are not extraordinarily uncommon, says Mikki Hebl, professor of psychology at Rice University. On average, more than half of the letters contained at least one. Such wording might weigh in on decisions in which candidates otherwise have very similar qualifications, she says.
“Letters of recommendation are usually so positively skewed to begin with that a ‘doubt-raiser’ can stand out in a sea of positivity,” Hebl says. “Also, recommendations are made all the time, even if they’re not in letter form. It’s so important to think about the ways language reflects subtle biases, as these spoken subtleties also may add up over time to create disparities.”
In the second study, researchers examined whether people actually recognized and were influenced by a doubt-raiser within a recommendation letter.
Approximately 300 university professors across the country were asked to rate one recommendation letter. Letters were manipulated to have just one of the four doubt-raisers and to be written for either a man or woman; all other information contained in the letter was identical across conditions.
The researchers found that the presence of any one of three doubt-raisers—negativity, faint praise, or hedges—caused the professors to rate these letters negatively. The fourth doubt-raiser, irrelevant information, made no difference in how the letters were rated.
Doubt-raisers were considered negative regardless of whether the letter was written for a male or female, Hebl says.
“I would suggest avoiding these types of phrases in recommendations if you are trying to write a strong letter,” she adds, “and to be aware that they might be more likely to unintentionally slip into letters for women than men.”
Juan Madera, formerly Hebl’s graduate student and now an associate professor of hospitality management at the University of Houston, is lead author of the paper, which appears in the Journal of Business and Psychology. Other authors are from Rice and from the City University of New York. The National Institutes of Health funded the work.
Source: Rice University