From 2010 to 2020, a larger proportion of rural Americans smoked cigarettes—and their odds of quitting smoking were lower—compared to those living in urban areas, according to a new study.
“Cigarette smoking prevalence is higher in rural than urban US communities, and that disparity has only increased over time,” says Maria Parker, an assistant professor of epidemiology and biostatistics in the Indiana University School of Public Health-Bloomington. “We wanted to see if quit ratios might account for some of rural vs. urban area smoking disparity, beyond a higher smoking prevalence.”
Using deidentified data from the US Department of Health and Human Services’ 2010-20 National Survey on Drug Use, the researchers analyzed adults who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in a lifetime, which they defined as lifetime cigarette smoking.
Current smoking was defined as smoking one or more cigarettes in the past month, and former smoking as no cigarettes in the past year. Overall and annual quit ratios were estimated as proportions of former smokers among lifetime smokers.
The researchers found that of the 161,348 lifetime cigarette smokers analyzed, 33.5% were former smokers.
In 2020, current smoking prevalence was higher in rural than urban areas—19.2% vs 14.4%. Quit ratios were similar in rural and urban areas, at 52.9% and 53.9%, respectively.
However, from 2010 to 2020, the odds of quitting smoking were 75% lower in rural areas compared to urban ones. Over time, smoking quit ratios among both rural and urban populations increased.
“Our findings support that a persistent rural/urban disparity exists,” Parker says. “Not only were smoking prevalence estimates higher in rural areas, but quit ratios were lower in rural areas than urban areas. Rural residents may face more barriers to using smoking cessation services than urban residents, or they may be in an earlier stage of motivation to quit.”
Smoking intervention at the clinical setting, health system, or population level might improve reach and sustainability of cessation services for rural residents. Parker says that leveraging existing smoking quit lines and telehealth solutions may also help rural residents by minimizing barriers to access.
“Higher cigarette smoking prevalence and lower cessation in rural populations have led to higher rates of smoking-attributable cancer incidence and death in rural, compared with urban residents,” says coauthor Andrea Villanti, associate professor in the health behavior, society and policy department at Rutgers University. “Tobacco cessation, therefore, is a high-impact target for cancer prevention efforts in rural populations.”
The study appears in JAMA Network Open. Additional coauthors are from Yeshiva University, Rutgers, and Indiana University.
Source: Indiana University