Does the endocannabinoid system link depression and exercise?

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How does exercise improve the mood of people with depression? New research looks to the endocannabinoid system for answers.

The endocannabinoid system is made up of the body’s naturally occurring cannabinoid molecules and their receptors, says Jacob Meyer, an assistant professor of kinesiology at Iowa State University. Activation of these receptors appears to strengthen connections in the brain and may influence pain and depression.

In a new study, Meyer and colleagues measured endocannabinoid levels and changes in mood before and after exercise sessions with varying levels of intensity. They found a significant boost in endocannabinoids and improvements in mood following prescribed moderate-intensity exercise.

“Finding alternatives to medication is important for the treatment of depression,” Meyer says. “If we can figure out how exercise works with the endocannabinoid system, we could then design optimal exercise interventions.”

Prescribed exercise

The researchers analyzed data from 17 women with depression. Each woman completed two, 30-minute exercise sessions on a stationary bike—one at a prescribed moderate intensity and a second of the participants’ own preferred intensity. Both sessions improved mood, but the researchers only noted an increase in endocannabinoid levels for moderate intensity exercise. There was no difference for preferred intensity.

Meyer says this was surprising, but the differences may stem from variation in the preferred session. For example, some women stayed consistently at a lighter intensity, while others completed intervals. With a small sample, the variation may have obscured the relationship between the preferred intensity and change in endocannabinoids, Meyer says.

The findings are consistent with a 2016 study, in which Meyer and colleagues looked at the effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF, a protein that regulates neuron growth and survival. People with depression typically have lower levels of BDNF. The 2016 study found that when women with depression were prescribed an exercise session similar in intensity to one they selected, their BDNF levels were significantly higher following the prescribed session.

“Having someone else prescribe the exercise could be involved in both the psychological and biological response to exercise,” Meyer says.

Mood boost

For each exercise session, researchers collected blood samples immediately after exercise and also measured mood and anxiety at 10 minutes and 30 minutes post-workout. Changes in endocannabinoids were significantly related to the improvement in mood up to 30 minutes after the moderate exercise, suggesting that the system contributes to the mood-enhancing effects of prescribed exercise, Meyer says.

“These results show us that the effect of prescribed moderate-intensity exercise on mood is generally pretty quick and lasts for a while at a relatively sustained rate,” Meyer says. “However, given that people felt better after the preferred exercise session, even though it didn’t change endocannabinoid levels, multiple factors are likely involved in how exercise makes people feel better.”

That is the focus of Meyer’s ongoing research, which aims to develop new treatments for mental health conditions that include exercise. Meyer is currently recruiting 20-to-60-year-old men and women to participate in the study.

The findings appear in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. Coauthors of the study are from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Medical College of Wisconsin, and William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital.

Source: Iowa State University