Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation may improve self-control, reduce cigarette cravings, and lead to less smoking, a study finds.
People with nicotine dependence tend to have significant structural and functional differences in the brain, compared to healthy non-smokers. Smoking cigarettes has been shown to be associated with less grey matter, which means fewer neurons and other cells in the brain.
Research suggests these differences may affect inhibitory control (IC), our control over automatic urges and response to stimuli, which enables humans to stop an impulsive reaction to something.
“Having difficulties with IC may make it harder to avoid smoking when the urge arises, in response to all the cues and contexts in the environment that trigger the behavior to light a cigarette,” says Brett Froeliger, professor of psychiatry at the University of Missouri, and lead author of the study in Biological Psychiatry CNNI
TBS refers to when magnetic pulses are applied to the brain in bursts of three and come in two forms: continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS). cTBS consists of applying these three bursts repeatedly for 40 seconds, whereas iTBS applies the same number of pulses irregularly for more than 190 seconds.
Magnetic stimulation has been used to treat other mental illnesses and disorders. cTBS has been experimentally tested to treat generalized anxiety disorder, whereas iTBS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex—a part of your brain responsible for cognitive processes—is FDA-approved for treating major depressive disorder.
The study involved 37 participants, mostly in their late 40s, and examined the effects of both cTBS and iTBS to the right inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region heavily involved with IC. Researchers found that cTBS improved IC, whereas both cTBS and iTBS reduced cigarette cravings and, subsequently, smoking.
“Identifying treatments that improve IC may help reduce smoking and can potentially help with preventing relapse following when a person attempts to quit smoking,” Froeliger says.
“Treatments that improve IC may also help disrupt the cycle of drug use among individuals with other substance use disorders; however, further research is needed to examine the clinical value of TBS for treating substance use disorders.”
Source: University of Missouri