Purdue professors Michael Manfra, from left, and Gabor Csathy stand next to the high-mobility gallium arsenide molecular beam epitaxy system at the Birck Nanotechnology Center. Manfra holds a gallium-arsenide wafer on which his research team grows ultrapure gallium arsenide semiconductor crystals to observe new electron ground states that could have applications in high-speed quantum computing. (Purdue University photo/Andrew Hancock)