USC (US) — Neuroscientists have selectively shut off the ability to sense cold in mice while leaving them the ability to sense heat and touch—a feat that could lead to better pain drugs for people.
The researchers have isolated chills at a cellular level, identifying the sensory network of neurons in the skin that relays the sensation of cold.
In prior work, David McKemy, associate professor of neurobiology at University of Southern California (USC) discovered a link between the experience of cold and a protein known as TRPM8 (pronounced trip-em-ate), which is a sensor of cold temperatures in neurons in the skin, as well as a receptor for menthol, the cooling component of mint.
Now, in a paper that appears today in the Journal of Neuroscience, McKemy and his co-investigators have isolated and ablated the neurons that express TRPM8, giving them the ability to test the function of these cells specifically.
Using a mouse-tracking software program developed by one of McKemy’s students, the researchers tested control mice and mice without TRPM8 neurons on a multi-temperature surface. The surface temperature ranged from 0 degrees to 50 degrees Celsius (32 to 122 degrees Farenheit), and mice were allowed to move freely among the regions.
The researchers found that mice depleted of TRPM8 neurons could not feel cold but still responded to heat. Control mice tended to stick to an area around 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit) and avoided both colder and hotter areas. But mice without TRPM8 neurons avoided only hotter plates and not cold—even when the cold should have been painful or was potentially dangerous.
In tests of grip strength, responses to touch or coordinated movements, such as balancing onto a rod while it rotated, there was no difference between the control mice and the mice without TRPM8-expressing neurons.
By better understanding the specific ways in which people feel sensations, scientists hope to one day develop better pain treatments without knocking out all ability to feel for suffering patients.
“The problem with pain drugs now is that they typically just reduce inflammation, which is just one potential cause of pain, or they knock out all sensation, which often is not desirable,” McKemy says. “One of our goals is to pave the way for medications that address the pain directly in a way that does not leave patients completely numb.”
Funding for this research came from the National Institutes of Health.