Stressed kids at risk for obesity

IOWA STATE (US)—Stressed out teens are more likely to be overweight or obese, especially if they live with a mom who also feels frazzled, according to a new Iowa State University study.

The study of 1,011 adolescents, ages 10-15, and their mothers from low-income families living in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio will be published in the August issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health. Forty-seven percent of the teens in the sample were overweight or obese, but that percentage increased to 56.2 percent among those who were affected by four or more stressors.

“We found that an adolescent or youth who’s more stressed—caused by such things as having poor grades, mental health problems, more aggressive behavior, or doing more drugs and alcohol—is also more likely to be overweight or obese,” says lead author Brenda Lohman, an Iowa State assistant professor of human development and family studies.

Susan Stewart, an Iowa State associate professor of sociology; and Steven Garasky, a professor of human development and family studies at Iowa State; joined Lohman on the research team. Former Iowa State faculty members Craig Gundersen, a member of the agricultural and consumer economics faculty at the University of Illinois; and Joey Eisenmann, a member of the kinesiology and pediatrics faculty at Michigan State University; also contributed to the study.

The study analyzes data obtained from the six-year investigation “Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study.” Researchers measured the height and weight of the adolescents to determine their body mass index, which was subsequently used to determine weight status based on two widely used classification systems. Adolescent food insecurity status and individual, maternal, and family stressors were also determined through interviews.

The five factors used to determine the individual stressor index for the adolescents were  academic problems, consumption of drugs and alcohol, depression or poor mental health levels, acting out or aggressive behaviors, and lack of future orientation.

The researchers wrote that the adolescents’ relationship with stress and becoming overweight may be a result of biological and behavioral responses to stress, such as overeating and lack of exercise.

“It could possibly be that the obesity is leading to these stressors, too,” Lohman says. “And so the work that we’re doing right now looks at which one of these is really coming first: the stressors or the obesity. We know that it is cyclical and that all of these factors just compound on each other.”

The study also found that a mother’s stress, coupled with the lack of food to sustain active, healthy living, contributes to a child’s chances of becoming overweight or obese.

“In our past research, we did not find this association for older youth (ages 11-17), we only found it for young children (ages 3-10) who were in a house that had enough food or were food-secure,” Lohman explains. “But it may be that the adolescents are more cognitively aware of what’s going on in the household and they take on their mothers’ stress as well. This may be exacerbated in houses where there’s not enough food.”

While this study singles out mothers, fathers aren’t immune to their child’s weight status either.

“My own research focuses on fathers and shows that fathers, too, have an effect on children’s eating habits and obesity,” says Stewart, author of the book Brave New Stepfamilies, who had another study posted by the Journal of Adolescent Health last month on nonresident father involvement and adolescent eating patterns.

“In our latest study, we found that kids who are involved with nonresident dads eat better—more vegetables, less fast food,” she adds. “However, similar to the Lohman study, living with a single mom was associated with worse eating habits.”

Lohman says the new research should emphasize the need for health care professionals to take a more holistic approach in the treatment of obese teens.
“We absolutely have to focus on their (teens) health, well-being, nutrition, and exercise—and education of these things for them,” she adds. “But we really need to also look holistically at their life and work towards reducing stress and rates of food insecurity for those adolescents as well.”

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