U. OREGON (US) — A new liquid material stores hydrogen safely at room temperature and is both air- and moisture-stable, a step forward in efforts to develop a carrier for hydrogen fuel.
“In addition to renewable hydrogen production, the development of hydrogen storage technologies continues to be an important task toward establishing a hydrogen-based energy infrastructure,” says Shih-Yuan Liu, professor of chemistry at the University of Oregon.
Beyond temperature and stability properties, the boron-nitrogen-based material also features hydrogen desorption—without any phase change—that is clean, fast, and controllable. It uses readily available iron chloride as a catalyst for desorption, and allows for recycling of spent fuel into a charged state. The findings are reported in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
The big challenges to move this storage platform forward, researchers caution, are the needs to increase hydrogen yield and develop a more energy efficient regeneration mechanism.
The U.S. Department of Energy, which funded the research, is shooting to develop a viable liquid or solid carrier for hydrogen fuel by 2017. The new approach differs from many other technologies being studied in that it is liquid-based rather than solid, which, Liu says, would ease the possible transition from a gasoline to a hydrogen infrastructure.
“The field of materials-based hydrogen storage has been dominated by the study of solid-phase materials such as metal hydrides, sorbent materials, and ammonia borane,” Liu says. “The availability of a liquid-phase hydrogen storage material could represent a practical hydrogen storage option for mobile and carrier applications that takes advantage of the currently prevalent liquid-based fuel infrastructure.”
The key is in the chemistry. Liu’s team originally discovered six-membered cyclic amine borane materials that readily trimerize—form a larger desired molecule—with the release of hydrogen. These initial materials, however, were solids.
By tweaking the structure, including reducing the ring size from 6- to a 5-membered ring, the group succeeded in creating a liquid version that has low vapor pressures and does not change its liquid property upon hydrogen release.
Initially, the new platform could be more readily adopted for use in portable fuel cell-powered devices, says Liu.
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