breast cancer

Polarity gene key to breast tumor growth

breast cancer

New research suggests loss of polarity in epithelial cells, which are regulated by one particular gene, plays an important role in breast tumor development. Polarization enables the transport of molecules in a single direction. In studies with mice, researchers demonstrated that if the gene is reintroduced into a tumor, polarity can be restored. The image shows normal cells  above and abnormal below. (Courtesy: McGill)

MCGILL (CAN)—New research helps explain why breast-milk cells lose their structure, causing them to clump up in strange ways and sometimes become cancer tumors.

One particular gene regulates epithelial cells—those that normally form in sheets and are polarized to enable the transport of molecules in a single direction. It’s this loss of polarity that is thought to play an important role in breast tumor development.

By using mouse models, William Muller, a biochemist at McGill University, discovered that the cells do not form neat structures when the gene malfunctions.

“In fact, the first mouse model had a skin defect and was completely incapable of forming sheets of epithelial cells. This gene is frequently lost in breast cancer, significant proof that this gene might play an important role,” he says.

The research, published in the journal Genes and Development, shows that if the gene is reintroduced into a tumor, polarity can be restored.

“This is an interesting first step along this particular path,” Muller says, pointing out that the gene functions by working with more than 40 various proteins, of which only one, a scaffold protein, has been identified.

Proteins, he explains, play various roles in the body, including maintaining cell shape and function and driving chemical reactions, immune responses, and growth.

“We have many other steps to take before we can say this path will lead to a treatment or cure.”

Scientists at the Ontario Cancer Institute, the research arm of Princess Margaret Hospital, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York State contributed to the research, which received funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the United States Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program.

More McGill University news: www.mcgill.ca/newsroom/

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