Not all people who use a lot of first-person singular pronouns like “I” and “me” in normal conversation are narcissistic or have an inflated sense of their own importance, a new study suggests.
Narcissists have an unrealistic sense of superiority and self-importance and an overabundance of self-focus, so it might be reasonable to assume that narcissists would be more prone to this kind of language, says study coauthor Matthias Mehl, professor of psychology at University of Arizona.
“There is a widely assumed association between use of first-person singular pronouns—what we call ‘I-talk’—and narcissism, among laypeople and scientists, despite the fact that the empirical support for this relation is surprisingly sparse and generally inconsistent,” says Angela Carey, a doctoral candidate in psychology and lead author of the study in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Early testing of this hypothesis was conducted at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1988 and confirmed the association, but it consisted of only 48 participants.
Since then, scientific studies have been unable to consistently replicate the finding. Because it appears to be such a pervasive belief in modern society, the researchers felt it was important to give the hypothesis a rigorous scientific vetting.
5 narcissism measures
For the study, researchers recruited more than 4,800 people in Germany and the United States for the study (67 percent were female, mostly undergraduate students). Participants were asked to engage in one of six communications tasks in which they wrote or talked about themselves or an unrelated topic.
Researchers scored the participants for narcissism using five different narcissism measures, including the common 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Their narcissism score was then compared with their use of first-person singular pronouns in the communication tasks.
The findings showed no association between pronoun use and narcissism. Men had a slightly higher correlation than women, but neither was statistically significant nor practically meaningful.
“The most interesting finding is that the results did not vary much across two different countries, multiple labs, five different narcissism measures, and 12 different samples,” Mehl says. “We were surprised by how consistent of a near-null finding it was.”
Identifying narcissists is important, because over time their grandiosity, self-focus, and self-importance can become socially toxic and can have negative consequences on relationships, Carey says.
“The next question, of course, is how else, if not through I-talk, narcissism is revealed through language,” she says. “We are working on this question in a follow-up study using the same data.”
Source: University of Arizona