Tawa, a newly discovered dinosaur, had a body about the size of a large dog, but with a much longer tail. It lived about 214 million years ago, plus or minus a million. Tawa is part of a group of dinosaurs known as theropods, which includes T. Rex and Velociraptor, that ate meat, walked on two legs, and had feathers. (View other photos and video.)

TEXAS-AUSTIN (US)—Discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a previously unknown meat-eating dinosaur may answer questions about early dinosaur evolution and a period of explosive diversification when dinosaurs spread across the supercontinent Pangaea.

Paleontologists from the University of Texas at Austin found the skeleton in a fossil bone bed in Northern New Mexico.

The specimen, called Tawa, after the Hopi word for the Puebloan sun god, is a juvenile that stood about 28 inches (70 cm) tall at the hips and was about 6 feet (2 meters) long from snout to tail.


Its body was about the size of a large dog, but with a much longer tail. It lived about 214 million years ago, plus or minus a million. The specimens are remarkable because they show little sign of being flattened during fossilization.

Tawa is part of a group of dinosaurs known as theropods, which includes T. Rex and Velociraptor.

Theropods for the most part ate meat, walked on two legs, and had feathers. Though most went extinct by 65 million years ago, some lineages survived to spawn modern birds.

One of Tawa’s most important contributions to science has to do with what it says about another dinosaur, Herrerasaurus, the center of a lively debate since its discovery in Argentina in the 1960s, says Sterling Nesbitt, a postdoctoral researcher at University of Texas at Austin’s Jackson School of Geosciences.

Herrerasaurus had some traits in common with theropods—including large claws, carnivorous teeth, and certain pelvic features—but lacked other theropod traits such as pockets in vertebrae for airsacs.


Tawa’s hand and claws

Some paleontologists believe it was so unusual it was outside the evolutionary tree of theropods, or even of dinosaurs. Others placed it among the earliest theropods.

“The question was did those carnivorous traits arise in Herrerasaurus and in theropods independently or were they traits from a recent common ancestor that got passed down,” Nesbitt says.

“We had so few specimens of early theropods that it was hard to answer that question. But now that we have Tawa, we think we have an answer.”

Tawa had a mix of Herrerasaurus-like characteristics (for example, in the pelvis) and features found in firmly established theropod dinosaurs (for example, pockets for airsacs in the backbone).

Therefore, the characteristics that Herrerasaurus shares uniquely with theropods such as Tawa confirm the characteristics didn’t arise independently and that Herrerasaurus is indeed a theropod.

The firm placement of Herrerasaurus within the theropod lineage points up an interesting fact about dinosaur evolution: Once they appeared, they very rapidly diversified into the three main dinosaur lineages that persisted for more than 170 million years.

Herrerasaurus was found in a South American rock layer alongside the oldest members of two major lineages—the sauropods and the ornithischians.

Tawa pulls Herrerasaurus into the theropod lineage, so that means all three lineages are present in South America pretty much as soon as dinosaurs evolved,” says Nesbitt.

“Without Tawa, you can guess at that, but Tawa helps shore up that argument.”

Tawa skeletons were found beside two other theropod dinosaurs from around the same period. Nesbitt notes that each of the three is more closely related to a known dinosaur from South America than they are to each other.

This suggests these three species each descended from a separate lineage in South America, rather than all evolving from a local ancestor, and then later dispersed to North America and other parts of the supercontinent Pangaea. It also suggests there were multiple dispersals out of South America.

The first Tawa fossils were discovered in 2004 by volunteers taking a week-long paleontology seminar with experts at the Ruth Hall Museum of Paleontology in Abiquiu, New Mexico.

The dig site, known as Hayden Quarry, is in a hillside on Ghost Ranch made famous by the painter Georgia O’Keefe. Alex Downs, an instructor for the course, contacted Nesbitt and a colleague to ask if they’d like to take a look at the fossils.

There was a thigh bone, part of a hip and what later turned out to be some unrelated vertebrae.

“When we saw them, our jaws dropped,” says Nesbitt. “A lot of these theropods have really hollow bones, so when they get preserved, they get really crunched. But these were in almost perfect condition.”

Nesbitt is lead author of a paper on the discovery, which appears in the Dec. 10 issue of the journal Science.

Researchers from the University of Chicago, the University of Utah, Stony Brook University, the Ruth Hall Museum of Paleontology in New Mexico, and the American Museum of Natural History contributed to the study. The work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society, and was featured in the NSF-funded IMAX 3-D movie Dinosaurs Alive!

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