Invasions from alien plants, animals, and pathogens threaten the economies of the world’s poorest nations, according to a new study.
One-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing countries and biodiversity hotspots, according to the study published in Nature Communications.
“In the coming years, the negative impacts associated with the introduction of harmful species will likely be exacerbated by other global stressors, such as climate change, landscape degradation, and pollution,” says study coauthor Ines Ibañez, associate professor at the University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment.
“Developed and developing countries—especially the latter—may lack the operational infrastructure to prevent and deal with harmful introductions.”
The damage caused by non-native species—in the Great Lakes region, the harmful invaders include zebra and quagga mussels, the emerald ash borer, and the sea lamprey—threaten global biodiversity and cost global economies $1.4 trillion annually. They can transmit disease, choke river systems and wells, prevent cattle from grazing, and out-compete or eat native species.
This is often seen as a First World problem. The new study shows that the invasions are also threatening the last remaining biodiversity strongholds in the world’s most fragile economies.
“Low-income countries stand to lose a lot by having their natural resources sapped by invasive species,” says coauthor Jeffrey Dukes, professor of forestry and natural resources and biological sciences at Purdue University. “We hope this analysis can be a conversation starter for governments around the world to strengthen their protection.”
Increasing globalization—especially imports of pets and plants—has caused many of the biological invasions in the past. In the future, air travel will be responsible for biological invasions of Africa and Asia. This will be exacerbated by climate change and intensifying agriculture, which make it easier for invasive species to become established, according to the study authors.
Rich nations are accustomed to the nuisance of invasive alien species and are increasingly taking protective action. The study outlines how poorer economies are crucially reliant on international trade and have little power to regulate imports, so the introduction of highly dangerous species continues unchecked.
The research team evaluated the global 21st century threat from invasive species and found that many developing nations do not have the resources or plans needed to respond properly. The researchers hope their findings will lead governments and nongovernmental organizations to improve schemes to warn communities of the threats of biological invasion and to provide solutions.
“Rampant globalization will lead to invasions in countries with the least capability to deal with them,” says lead author Regan Early of the University of Exeter. “We need more international cooperation and for the US, Australia, and nations in Europe to share expertise.”
Some countries that the analysis highlights as having both a high threat of invasive species and a low capacity to respond include Peru, Thailand, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Chad, Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, and Papua New Guinea.
The researchers collected information about trade—particularly plants, pets, and air travel—and compared it to data about climate change, wildlife, and agriculture to model where invasions are likely to be identified.
Biological invasions in the developing world so far have included Panama disease, which wiped out banana plantations in Central and South America, and prickly pear, which devastated grassland in Africa, leading to cattle being malnourished and people losing their livelihoods. A new strain of Panama disease currently threatens the global banana market.
Individuals can also help halt the spread of invasive species, Dukes says. When traveling, be honest with customs about whether you’ve been in a pasture or rural area, and double-check your baggage to make sure you are not inadvertently transporting seeds or insects. Clean your shoes of soil. At home, simple steps that can curb the spread of invasive species include not planting invasive species in yards or gardens, not moving firewood, and not releasing exotic pets into the wild.
Additional coauthors are from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Purdue University; University of Washington; the USDA; the US National Park Service; University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Davis; Stanford University; University of California, Irvine; University of Southampton; US National Institutes of Health; and Flowminder Foundation.
The analysis was conducted as part of the Climate Change & Invasive Species Working Group (supported by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, which is funded by the NSF); University of California, Santa Barbara; and state of California. NERC Great Western Four+ Doctoral Training Partnership supported the work.