U. COLORADO (US)—Ice loss from the Greenland ice sheet, which has been increasing during the past decade over its southern region, is now making an upward climb on its northwest coast as well.
An international team of scientists compared data from NASA’s Gravity and Recovery Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite system with continuous GPS measurements made from long-term sites on bedrock on the edges of the ice sheet.
The data from the GPS and GRACE provided the researchers with monthly averages of crustal uplift caused by ice-mass loss.
The team combined the uplift measured by GRACE over United Kingdom-sized chunks of Greenland while the GPS receivers monitor crustal uplift on scales of just tens of miles.
“When we look at the monthly values from GRACE, the ice mass loss has been very dramatic along the northwest coast of Greenland,” says John Wahr, professor of physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
“This is a phenomenon that was undocumented before this study. Our speculation is that some of the big glaciers in this region are sliding downhill faster and dumping more ice in the ocean.”
The team found that uplift rates near the Thule Air Base on Greenland’s northwest coast rose by roughly 1.5 inches, or about 4 centimeters, from October 2005 to August 2009.
“Our results show that the ice loss, which has been well documented over southern portions of Greenland, is now spreading up along the northwest coast,” says Wahr’s colleague Shfaqat Abbas Khan, of Denmark’s Technical Institute’s National Space Institute in Copenhagen and lead author on a paper in Geophysical Research Letters.
Although the low resolution of GRACE—a swath of about 155 miles, or 250 kilometers across—is not precise enough to pinpoint the source of the ice loss, the fact that the ice sheet is losing mass nearer to the ice sheet margins suggests the flows of Greenland outlet glaciers there are increasing in velocity.
A 2009 study published in GRL by Isabella Velicogna, who is a former CU-Boulder research scientist, showed that between April 2002 and February 2009, the Greenland ice sheet shed roughly 385 cubic miles of ice. The mass loss is equivalent to about 0.5 millimeters of global sea-level rise per year.
“These changes on the Greenland ice sheet are happening fast, and we are definitely losing more ice mass than we had anticipated, ” says Velicogna.
“We also are seeing this ice mass loss trend in Antarctica, a sign that warming temperatures really are having an effect on ice in Earth’s cold regions.”
Researchers have been gathering data from GRACE since NASA launched the system in 2002. Two GRACE satellites whip around Earth 16 times a day separated by 137 miles and measure changes in Earth’s gravity field caused by regional shifts in the planet’s mass, including ice sheets, oceans and water stored in the soil and in underground aquifers.
“GRACE is unique in that it allows us to see changes in the ice mass in almost real time,” explains Velicogna. “Combining GRACE data with the separate signals from GPS stations gives us a very powerful tool that improves our resolution and allows us to better understand the changes that are occurring.”
In addition to monitoring the Thule GPS receiver in northwest Greenland as part of the new GRL study, the team also is taking data from GPS receivers in southern Greenland near the towns of Kellyville and Kulusuk.
An additional 51 permanent GPS stations recently set up around the edges of the Greenland ice sheet should be useful to measure future crustal uplift and corresponding ice loss, says Wahr.
“If this activity in northwest Greenland continues and really accelerates some of the major glaciers in the area—like the Humboldt Glacier and the Peterman Glacier—Greenland’s total ice loss could easily be increased by an additional 50 to 100 cubic kilometers (12 to 24 cubic miles) within a few years,” warns Khan.
Greenland is about one-fourth the size of the United States and the massive ice sheet covers about 80 percent of its surface. It holds about 20 percent of the world’s ice, the equivalent of about 21 feet of global sea rise. Air temperatures over the Greenland ice sheet have increased by about 4 degrees Fahrenheit since 1991, which most scientists attribute to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
A 2006 study by Wahr and Velicogna using the GRACE satellite indicated that Greenland lost roughly 164 cubic miles of ice from April 2004 to April 2006—more than the volume of water in Lake Erie.
Researchers from Ohio State University and the University of California, Irvine, contributed to the study, which was funded by NASA and the National Science Foundation.
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