BUFFALO (US)—The greater the number of restaurants within a five-minute walk of a woman’s home, the higher her body mass index (BMI).

A recent study also found that women with homes closer to a supermarket, relative to a convenience store, had lower BMIs.

“The interaction of the food environment and the built environment in a neighborhood carries significant consequences for obesity,” says study leader Samina Raja, professor of urban and regional planning at the University at Buffalo. “For example, a diverse land-use mix, while beneficial for promoting physical activity, is tied to a net increase in BMI when that land is dominated by restaurants.”

The exploratory, neighborhood-scale study involved 172 participants and was published in a recent issue of the Journal of Planning Education and Research.

Raja points out that more than one-third of U.S. adults were reported to be obese in 2006, with the prevalence of obesity slightly greater among women than men.

“The prevalence of obesity is a significant public health concern because it places individuals at a risk for a variety of diseases,” she says, “and the role of environmental factors in contributing to obesity has received a lot of attention. We have attempted here to explain the paradox of high BMI rates among women living in highly walkable inner city neighborhoods.

Raja says the study has several limitations, among them, the fact that the researchers did not know where their subjects shopped for food, only what outlets were closest geographically.

The also were not able to classify restaurants based on their quality—fast-food and sit-down restaurants were treated as a single category, even though they know that quality varies widely across different types of restaurants.

“The study raises several questions to be addressed in future research,” she says, “and suggests that innovative research designs will be necessary to develop greater evidence of causality—perhaps longitudinal studies that look at how moving one’s residence (thus changing exposure to a particular food, food type, or built environment) affects physical activity, eating behavior, and health outcomes.”

The study identifies planning strategies and tools available to improve community food and built environments to support healthy eating behavior.

“Comprehensive plans, regulatory mechanisms, and financial incentives can be used individually or in concert to improve food environments,” the researchers say.

In the study they cite recent efforts in Madison and Dane County, Wis.; Marin County, Calif.; Harrison County, Miss.; special regulations adopted in New York City that offer zoning incentives (e.g. allowing denser development and reduction in parking requirements) for development projects that dedicate a greater store floor area to fresh foods in underserved neighborhoods; and Pennsylvania’s Fresh Food Financing Initiative

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