U. MINNESOTA (US) — Germ cells, the cells that give rise to eggs and sperm, undergo a special form of cell division that commits them to their fates. But future sperm put it off much longer than future eggs do.
In adult males, a gene blocks the signal to switch to the radically different mode of division, allowing precursors of sperm cells to vastly increase their numbers and, thus, the number of sperm, which cannot divide and multiply.
“It belongs to the only gene family found to control sex determination in a wide variety of animal species,” says David Zarkower, professor of genetics, cell biology, and development, at the University of Minnesota.
Scientists believe the work, published in Developmental Cell, may someday result in a male contraceptive pill.
Normal humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair consisting of one chromosome inherited from the mother and the other from the father. In normal cell division (mitosis), a cell splits into two daughter cells, each of which gets a pair of each chromosome, including the sex chromosomes: X-X in females and X-Y in males.
But germ cells in a late stage of development must divide so that daughter cells get only one member of each chromosomal pair.
In the case of the X-Y chromosomal pair in males, it means that the X (from a man’s mother) and Y (from his father) end up in different sperm cells. This form of cell division, called meiosis, ensures that sperm and egg each have half the usual number of chromosomes, which is restored upon fertilization.
In adult males, germ cells go through multiple rounds of mitosis, generating large numbers of new cells. With every round, the cells mature, until they are ready to undergo meiosis and turn into sperm. At any given time, a testis contains germ cells performing meiosis while neighboring cells are performing mitosis, a fundamentally different process.
“It’s been an open question how males control which cells perform mitosis and which perform meiosis when they are side by side,” Zarkower says.
Zarkower and colleagues noticed that a gene they had studied for a long time, called DMRT1, was active in mouse germ cells dividing by mitosis but was “silenced” in cells after they had entered meiosis.
Using pinpoint genetic manipulation, they disabled the DMRT1 gene in just those germ cells that were still dividing by mitosis, not even close to entering meiosis yet. By switching off DMRT1, the germ cells entered meiosis precociously.
Among DMRT1’s many effects, it keeps the male germ cells from responding to retinoic acid, a form of vitamin A that acts as a messenger by signaling the cells to begin meiosis. Retinoic acid exerts its effect by activating another gene, and DMRT1 blocked both the functioning of the other gene and its activation by retinoic acid.
Zarkower says that someday, the ability to turn DMRT1 on and off may help, for example, a man facing chemotherapy, which often destroys male germ cells. Before treatment, doctors could remove and culture a sample of germ cells, keeping the gene turned on until they have generated several sperm cell precursors that could be transplanted back after chemotherapy.
And a pill that interfered specifically with the functioning of DMRT1 in germ cells could greatly reduce male fertility.
“It’s fascinating because the two sexes look the same as embryos, yet they grow up as adults having many differences that are essential to maintaining the species,” Zarkower says.
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