MINNESOTA (US)—Physicists have recorded two interactions of subatomic particles whose signals look like those expected from the dark matter that gives shape to galaxies and forms the bulk of the Universe.
“Before you can declare a definitive discovery, you have to have confirmation from other experiments going on worldwide, as well as our own next-generation experiment,” says Priscilla Cushman, physics professor at the University of Minnesota.
“There’s about a one-in-four chance the signals are caused by ordinary interactions.”
Although dark matter accounts for some 80 percent of the mass in the Universe, it is invisible because it cannot absorb, reflect, or emit light.
According to theory, it interacts extremely weakly with ordinary matter.
Its existence was only inferred when it became apparent that the visible material in galaxies couldn’t generate enough gravity to hold the galaxies together at the speeds they rotate.
A glance at an average galaxy shows a flat spiral of stars. But galaxies, including the Milky Way, are actually spherical, because most of their mass is a ball of dark matter.
Dark matter is believed to have provided the gravitational power that made normal matter coalesce into galaxies, and Earth sails through billions of these particles every second.
“There’s so much indirect evidence for dark matter, it is hard not to expect to find it,” says Cushman.
The signals in question came from the CDMS-II (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) experiment, going on half a mile underground in northern Minnesota’s Soudan mine, where it is shielded from cosmic rays that would confound the results.
In a nutshell, the experiment recorded what may be particles of dark matter “bumping” the nucleus of an atom of germanium, producing a detectable vibration.
“This is a very exciting time for our field,” says assistant professor Vuc Mandic, who is involved with the project.
“The coming decade will likely see the direct detection of dark matter, even if our experiment may have only seen a background fluctuation.”
University of Minnesota news: www1.umn.edu/news/