Gene that stops tumors may spread colorectal cancer

Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States. (Credit: Ludovic Bertron/Flickr)

A gene that is known to suppress the growth and spread of many types of cancer has the opposite effect in some forms of colorectal cancer.

The discovery may lay the foundation for new colorectal cancer treatments.

“The gene known as Sprouty2 has previously been shown to protect against metastasis, or the spreading of cancer to other parts of the body, in breast, prostate, and liver cancer,” says Sharad Khare, associate professor of research in the University of Missouri School of Medicine’s Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and lead author of the study that is published in the journal Oncogene.

“However, our recent molecular studies found that this gene may actually help promote metastasis instead of suppress it.”

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For more than three years, researchers have studied Sprouty2 in cancer cell models, mouse models, and human biopsy samples. Using different molecular methods, the researchers found that the gene functions differently in colorectal cancer than in other types of cancers.

Sprouty2 is known to block molecular circuits to prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading to other parts of the body. However, in colorectal cancer, Sprouty2 may increase the metastatic ability of cancer cells instead of suppress it. Khare believes this occurs when the gene is up-regulated, or supercharged.

Cancer deaths attributed to colorectal cancer are mainly due to tumor recurrence and metastasis to other organs. Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society. It’s estimated that the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is about 1 in 20.

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“This finding is a very significant step in our understanding of metastasis in colorectal cancer, but it’s important to note that we believe this phenomenon may occur in only a subset of colorectal cancer patients,” Khare says.

“We don’t yet know why this is the case, but we hope to determine if there is a correlation between the up-regulation of this gene and the life expectancy of patients with colorectal cancer. Future studies will help us understand who may be at risk, and ultimately, if personalized treatments can be planned to target this gene.”

The National Institutes of Health, a Veterans Affairs Merit Award, the MU Research Board Award and MU School of Medicine Bridge funded the work. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.

Source: University of Missouri