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Can digital photos catch criminals in eye reflections?

"A face image that is recovered from a reflection in the subject’s eye is about 30,000 times smaller than the subject’s face," says Rob Jenkins. "Our findings thus highlight the remarkable robustness of human face recognition, as well as the untapped potential of high-resolution photography." (Credit: Aleks/Flickr)

Because the most commonly photographed objects are faces, researchers say it could be possible to mine detailed facial images for hidden information.

Human beings are highly efficient at recognizing familiar faces, even from very poor quality images. The detail available in digital photography could make it possible to harness this human ability for use in forensics.

Zooming in on the subject’s eye reveals hidden bystanders. (a) High-resolution face photograph. The red frame indicates the region of interest, which includes the reflective surface of the cornea. (b) Zoomed view of the region of interest with contrast enhanced. Five bystanders are clearly visible in the corneal reflection. The green frame highlights the face of one bystander. (c) Enhanced close-up of highlighted bystander. Gender, ethnicity, hair color, and approximate age can be clearly discerned, along with emotional expression and direction of social attention. (Credit: U. York)
Zooming in on the subject’s eye reveals hidden bystanders. (a) High-resolution face photograph. The red frame indicates the region of interest, which includes the reflective surface of the cornea. (b) Zoomed view of the region of interest with contrast enhanced. Five bystanders are clearly visible in the corneal reflection. The green frame highlights the face of one bystander. (c) Enhanced close-up of highlighted bystander. Gender, ethnicity, hair color, and approximate age can be clearly discerned, along with emotional expression and direction of social attention. (Credit: U. York)

Until now, photographers might reasonably have assumed that their own face was absent from the image. But new research, published in PLoS One, overturns this assumption.

By zooming in on high-resolution passport-style photographs, researchers were able to recover the faces of bystanders from reflections in the eyes of photographic subjects. The recovered bystander images could be identified accurately by observers, despite their low resolution.

To establish whether these bystanders could be identified from the reflection images, the researchers presented them as stimuli in a face-matching task.

Observers who were unfamiliar with the bystanders’ faces performed at 71 per cent accuracy while participants who were familiar with the faces performed at 84 percent accuracy. In a test of spontaneous recognition, observers could reliably name a familiar face from an eye reflection image.

“The pupil of the eye is like a black mirror. To enhance the image, you have to zoom in and adjust the contrast,” says Rob Jenkins of the department of psychology at the University of York.

To catch a perpetrator

“A face image that is recovered from a reflection in the subject’s eye is about 30,000 times smaller than the subject’s face. Our findings thus highlight the remarkable robustness of human face recognition, as well as the untapped potential of high-resolution photography.”

In crimes in which the victims are photographed, such as hostage taking or child sex abuse, reflections in the eyes of the photographic subject could help to identify perpetrators.

Also, images of people retrieved from cameras seized as evidence during criminal investigations may be used to piece together networks of associates or to link individuals to particular locations.

Christie Kerr of the School of Psychology at the University of Glasgow contributed to the research.

Source: University of York