Science & Technology - Posted by Jim Erickson-Michigan on Thursday, August 9, 2012 15:01 - 0 Comments
Tiny clams found success in freeloading
U. MICHIGAN (US) — Tiny clams’ propensity for shacking up with larger, burrowing creatures like sea urchins and shrimp was a key adaptation for their superfamily.
For land-dwelling organisms such as insects and the flowers they pollinate, it’s clear that interactions between species are one of the main drivers of the evolutionary change that leads to biological diversity.
But figuring out what mechanisms control the generation and maintenance of biological diversity on the planet is still a central question in evolutionary biology.
The tiny clam attached to this shrimp belongs to a superfamily so large and diverse that many of its ‘relatives’ are still undescribed by science. (Credit: Jingchun Li)
Straight from the Source
The answers are much murkier when it comes to ocean dwellers, mainly because the scope of ecological interactions remains poorly characterized for most marine species.
In one of the first efforts to examine how species interactions drive diversification of ocean-dwelling organisms, two University of Michigan researchers and an Australian colleague looked at the lifestyle choices within an exceptionally diverse superfamily of tiny clams, the Galeommatoidea.
They found that the fingernail-size-and-smaller clams’ interactions with bigger, burrowing creatures such as sea urchins, shrimp, and worms was a key adaptation that led to the evolutionary success of the superfamily, as measured by its “megadiverse” status among marine bivalves.
There are about 500 described species of galeommatoidean clams and many more undescribed species.
By becoming the uninvited house guests of their burrowing hosts, these freeloading, thin-shelled clams acquire a safe haven from predators prowling soft-bottomed sediments, where there’s nowhere else to hide.
Gaining this deep refuge opened up a vast habitat type—soft-bottom marine sediments composed of sand, silt, and clay—that would otherwise have remained unavailable to these clams.
Galeommatoidean clams are found worldwide in all the major ocean basins, in both rocky and soft-bottom habitats. Some of the clams live a solitary existence, while others form so-called commensal relationships with larger invertebrate hosts. A commensal relationship is one in which one organism benefits and the other is not harmed.
In a study published online August 8 in the journal PLoS ONE, the University of Michigan-led team performed a statistical analysis of the lifestyle and habitat preferences of 121 galeommatoidean species based on 90 source documents.
The researchers found that all but two of the 57 free-living species were restricted to hard-bottom habitats, typically hidden in rocky or coral-reef crevices. In contrast, 56 of the 60 commensal species were soft-sediment dwellers.
The results show that formation of commensal associations by galeommatoidean clams is robustly correlated with living in sediments. That finding is consistent with the hypothesis that evolution of these commensal relationships was primarily an adaptation to living in soft-bottom habitats.
“What was surprising was the overwhelming evidence that commensalism is associated with the soft-bottomed habitat. You seldom get such clear-cut data in an ecological study,” says Jingchun Li, a doctoral student in the department of ecology and evolutionary biology and first author of the paper.
Armor or avoidance
Clams and other bivalves have evolved two general anti-predator strategies: armor (think oysters) and avoidance. Since galeommatoidean clams have fragile shells, they must go the avoidance route, and following a larger host into a burrow allows the clams to attain depths of up to three feet—hundreds of times their body lengths.
Galeommatoidean clams lack the siphons (often called necks) that other clams use to feed and breathe while remaining safely buried in the sand. Siphons consist of two tubes: Water enters the clam’s body through one siphon, flowing into gills that capture oxygen and trap food. The water then flows out of the clam through the other siphon.
The siphon-less galeommatoideans make up for that shortcoming by teaming up with hosts that constantly pump fresh seawater into, through, and then out of their burrows.
“This allows the clams to stay deep and safe, while still having access to water and oxygen and a food supply,” Li says. In this way, the hosts act as giant siphon substitutes for the tiny clams.
“Jingchun’s finding that the type of sea floor habitat strongly modulates the ecological importance of commensalism in these megadiverse clams gives us a novel insight into how ostensibly irrelevant background physical conditions may shape the evolution of species interactions in marine environments,” says study co-author Diarmaid O’Foighil, Li’s adviser and the director of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
The second phase of the clam study will test the relative importance of free-living and commensal lifestyles in driving galeommatoidean diversification. Using data from about 300 species, the researchers will construct a phylogenetic tree for the entire superfamily.
The third author of the PLoS ONE paper is Peter Middelfart of the Australian Museum.
The study is supported by a Rackham International Student Fellowship from University of Michigan, a Molluscan Research Grant from the Malacological Society of Australasia, and a grant from the National Science Foundation.
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