The details you remember about an event, such as your last birthday party, are determined in part by your cultural background.
Americans, for instance, tend to focus on primary, visual details—the color of the decorations or the type of icing on the cake. East Asians may better remember interpersonal details—who served the cake or whom they danced with.
“Your culture influences what you perceive to be important around you,” explains Angela Gutchess, an assistant professor of psychology at Brandeis University.
“If your culture values social interactions, you will remember those interactions better than a culture that values individual perceptions. Culture really shapes your memory.”
To explore how the two are related, Gutchess and her team performed a series of memory tests on 65 students from the United States and East Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Korea.
Both sets of students scored similarly on general memory tests but American students showed more specific object recall. Gutchess showed both groups of students a series of images—a chair, a light, a desk.
The next day, she showed them another series of objects in which some photographs were reprised from the previous series and some were just similar.
The American students were better able to identify the duplicated pictures than their East Asian counterparts.
In a second test, Gutchess explored whether the two cultural groups remembered more detailed scenes differently—an office, a kitchen, the savannah. Again, participants were shown two series of photos and asked to identify same and similar images. Again, Americans scored higher on identifying duplicated scenes and objects.
“Previous studies had shown East Asians were better able to remember background and contextual details but this study showed that’s not always the case,” she says. “This may be because East Asian memory is more focused on emotional context and social detail than visual detail.”
Understanding how culture affects memory can improve interactions from diplomatic relations to classroom teaching styles, says Gutchess. Rote memorization may work for some cultures while a more context-based approach to learning may work better for others, Gutchess says.
“If we can understand how we remember, we can begin to really understand one another better,” Gutchess says.
The findings are reported in the journal Culture and Brain.
Source: Brandeis University