Can red wine help fight obesity?
PURDUE (US) — A compound found in red wine, grapes, and other fruits is able to block cellular processes that allow fat cells to develop, opening a door to a potential method to control obesity.
While similar in structure to resveratrol—the compound thought to combat cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases—piceatannol might be an important weapon against obesity. Resveratrol is converted to piceatannol in humans after it is consumed.
Researchers reported in this week’s issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry that the compound blocks an immature fat cell’s ability to develop and grow.
“Piceatannol actually alters the timing of gene expressions, gene functions, and insulin action during adipogenesis, the process in which early stage fat cells become mature fat cells,” says Kee-Hong Kim, an assistant professor of food science at Purdue University. “In the presence of piceatannol, you can see delay or complete inhibition of adipogenesis.”
Over a period of 10 days or more, immature fat cells, called preadipocytes, go through several stages to become mature fat cells, or adipocytes.
“These precursor cells, even though they have not accumulated lipids, have the potential to become fat cells,” Kim says. “We consider that adipogenesis is an important molecular target to delay or prevent fat cell accumulation and, hopefully, body fat mass gain.”
Piceatannol binds to insulin receptors of immature fat cells in the first stage of adipogenesis, blocking insulin’s ability to control cell cycles and activate genes that carry out further stages of fat cell formation.
Piceatannol is one of several compounds being studied in Kim’s laboratory for its health benefits. It is present in different amounts in red grape seeds and skin, blueberries, passion fruit, and other fruits.
Kim would like to confirm his current finding, which is based on a cell culture system, using an animal model of obesity. Future work would also include determining methods for protecting piceatannol from degrading so that concentrations large enough would be available in the bloodstream to stop adipogenesis or body fat gain, he says.
“We need to work on improving the stability and solubility of piceatannol to create a biological effect.”
The Purdue Research Foundation funded the work.
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