Different types of meditation have qualitatively different effects on the mind and body, report researchers. Whereas the Vajrayana style of Buddhist meditation produces an arousal response, the Theravada style produces a relaxation response.
In particular, the research team found that Vajrayana meditation, which is associated with Tibetan Buddhism, can lead to enhancements in cognitive performance.
Previous studies had defined meditation as a relaxation response and had attempted to categorize meditation as either involving focused or distributed attentional systems.
Neither of these hypotheses received strong empirical support, and most of the studies focused on Theravada meditative practices.
Four kinds of meditation
Associate Professor Maria Kozhevnikov and Dr Ido Amihai of the National University of Singapore’s psychology department examined four different types of meditative practices: two types of Vajrayana meditations (Tibetan Buddhism) practices (visualization of self-generation-as-Deity and Rig-pa) and two types of Theravada practices (Shamatha and Vipassana).
They collected electrocardiographic (EKG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses and also measured behavioral performance on cognitive tasks using a pool of experienced Theravada practitioners from Thailand and Nepal, as well as Vajrayana practitioners from Nepal.
They observed that physiological responses during the Theravada meditation differ significantly from those during the Vajrayana meditation.
Theravada meditation produced enhanced parasympathetic activation (relaxation). In contrast, Vajrayana meditation did not show any evidence of parasympathetic activity but showed an activation of the sympathetic system (arousal).
The researchers also observed an immediate, dramatic increase in performance on cognitive tasks following only Vajrayana styles of meditation. They note that such dramatic boost in attentional capacity is impossible during a state of relaxation.
Their results show that Vajrayana and Theravada styles of meditation are based on different neurophysiological mechanisms, which give rise to either an arousal or relaxation response.
A competition strategy?
The findings from the study, published in PLOS ONE, show that Vajrayana meditation can lead to dramatic enhancement in cognitive performance, suggesting that Vajrayana meditation could be especially useful in situations where it is important to perform at one’s best, such as during competition or states of urgency.
On the other hand, Theravada styles of meditation are an excellent way to decrease stress, release tension, and promote deep relaxation.
After seeing that even a single session of Vajrayana meditation can lead to radical enhancements in brain performance, Kozhevnikov and Amihai will be investigating whether permanent changes could occur after long-term practice.
The researchers are also looking at how non-practitioners can benefit from such meditative practices.
“Vajrayana meditation typically requires years of practice, so we are also looking into whether it is also possible to acquire the beneficial effects of brain performance by practicing certain essential elements of the meditation,” says Kozhevnikov.
“This would provide an effective and practical method for non- practitioners to quickly increase brain performance in times of need.”
Source: National University of Singapore