‘Power cable’ bacteria electrify the seafloor
USC (US) — Scientists have discovered tiny, filamentous bacteria that link up like living power cables to transmit electrons thousands of cell lengths away.
The Desulfobulbus bacterial cells, which are only a few thousandths of a millimeter long each, are so tiny that they are invisible to the naked eye.
And yet, under the right circumstances, they form a multicellular filament that can transmit electrons across a distance as large as one centimeter as part of the filament’s respiration and ingestion processes.
In a teaspoonful of mud, there may be up to one kilometer’s worth of living power cables. View larger. (Credit: Nils Risgaard-Petersen/Aarhus University)
“To move electrons over these enormous distances in an entirely biological system would have been thought impossible,” says Moh El-Naggar, assistant professor of physics at the University of Southern California (USC) and co-author of the paper, which is published in Nature today.
Scientists at Aarhus University in Denmark had discovered a seemingly inexplicable electric current on the sea floor years ago. The new experiments revealed that these currents are mediated by a hitherto unknown type of long, multicellular bacteria that act as living power cables.
“Until we found the cables we imagined something cooperative where electrons were transported through external networks between different bacteria. It was indeed a surprise to realize, that it was all going on inside a single organism,” says Lars Peter Nielsen of the Aarhus department of bioscience, and a corresponding author of the current study.
The team studied bacteria living in marine sediments that power themselves by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide. Cells at the bottom live in a zone that is poor in oxygen but rich in hydrogen sulfide, and those at the top live in an area rich in oxygen but poor in hydrogen sulfide.
The solution? They form long chains that transport individual electrons from the bottom to the top, completing the chemical reaction and generating life-sustaining energy.
“You have feeder cells on one end and breather cells on the other, allowing the whole living cable to survive,” El-Naggar says.
Aarhus and USC researchers collaborated to use physical techniques to evaluate the long-distance electron transfer in the filamentous bacteria. El-Naggar and his colleagues had previously used scanning-probe microscopy and nanofabrication methods to describe how bacteria use nanoscale structures called “bacterial nanowires” to transmit electrons many body lengths away from cells.
“I’m a physicist, so when I look at remarkable phenomena like this, I like to put it into a quantifiable process,” El-Naggar says.
El-Naggar says physicists are increasingly being tapped to tackle tough biological questions. “This world is so fertile right now,” he says. “It’s just exploding.”
This research was funded by European Research Council, the Danish National Research Foundation, the Danish Foundation for Independent Research, and the German Max Planck Society.